The climate of the NKOLAFAMBA Municipality is integrated into the climate of the whole Central region. Indeed, it is a humid tropical climate, of equatorial type, with 4 well marked seasons. The average annual rainfall is 1,700 mm and the average annual temperature is 24.5°C (annual report of activities of the departmental delegation of MINADER, 2010). However, disturbances that have been noted for more than two years do not always allow for a clear demarcation of these four seasons. Rainfall is bimodal, allowing two agricultural seasons. This climate is favourable to the development of the dense but semi-deciduous forest that favours the cultivation of cocoa and several other food crops (cassava, cocoyams, groundnut, etc.).
The soils are classified as Xanthic or "Plinthic Ferralsols" in the FAOUNESCO classification. They belong to the group of highly desaturated unsaturated ferralitic soils. They are tropical clay soils and their colours vary from yellowish-brown to bright brown. The PH is generally acidic. Hydromorphic soils are also found in very poorly drained lowland areas. Hydromorphic soils allow the development of off-season crops.
The municipality is part of the vast Southern Cameroonian plateau with an average altitude of 650m.
It is uneven in places due to isolated hills or complexes of hills, variable slopes and by the presence of some rocks in the area of NKOLMEYANG II and MEVEN that can be exploited as gravel in various constructions. There are no developed tourist sites. However, the communal area is full of enormous potential through the hills and mountains.
The area is watered by a hydrographic network made up of large rivers, the ATO'O and AFAMBA with their numerous tributaries such as: NTEM, NKOABONG, NSOLE, YOBO, OTTOTTOMO, ZEZA'A, METUI, ABIEUGUE MELOE. The multitude of streams within the Municipality can favour aquaculture (fish farming) and also the irrigation of crops in the dry season. These streams are used for washing, artisanal fishing, vehicle washing and sand extraction.
Some streams are subject to pollution because waste are dumped into them without control. Flows are average and can allow the production of electrical energy. The extent of the streams cannot be estimated due to the lack of available data
Flora and vegetation
The plant formation is a dense humid evergreen rainforest at low and medium altitudes, consisting of woody forest products, the most exploited species of which are listed in the table below.